The name of the substance (Persian language): Ethyl alcohol
The name of the material: English Ethyl Alcohol
Brand (Farsi): Ethanol
Brand name: Ethanol
Other names: Ethyl alcohol, Ethyl hydrate, Ethyl hydroxide, Fermentation alcohol, Wheat alcohol, Methyl cardanol, Molasses alcohol
Ethanol or ethyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol with a chemical formula C2H5OH with a special smell and fire that exists in alcoholic beverages. This alcohol is a substance that is absorbing and is found in alcoholic beverages of varying proportions. In addition, they are widely used in various industries. These uses are in perfumes and colognes as well as in vanilla as well as fuel in some new machines. To use this alcohol in perfume industries. Beer is a fungus that is propagated by germination if it fermented adjacent to a sugar substitute, it removes any material that has an enzymatic activity and causes sugar to be transformed. Among sugars, glucose is the C6H12O6 formula, which is found in grapes that produce alcohol after fermentation. Tanol has been consumed by humans since ancient times. The remnants of the Stone Age dishes, 9000 years ago in China, confirm the use of this substance as an alcoholic beverage. Purification of alcohol and its preparation purely was first made by Iranian scientist Mohammad bin Zakaria Razi. (Razi 865-925) Later, chemists named Geber Geber and Al-Kindi Alcidia improved alcohol distillation methods. In the old days, alcohol production was regarded as a science of art and science, until the famous chemist and scientist Gay- Lussac showed that glucose is the main source of glucose and initiates fermentation of ethanol. Ultimately, the role of yeast in the fermentation process was proven in 1837, after which Louis Pasteur discovered the anaerobic nature of the yeast, and the process of producing alcohol entered its industrial stage. The production of alcohol is made from sugar, and now it is considered as one of the products of the sugar industry, due to the reduction in its price. In the process of producing sugar, molasses are obtained. The drinking mill contains a mixture of non-crystalline sugars, non-sugar solids remaining from sugar cane or beet, the remaining chemicals from the production process, and some water. Mills usually account for about 4% of the weight of beet or cane. Forty percent of the sugar is produced on average (with sugar and sugar cane sugar).
Fuel: The largest use of ethanol is pure as fuel in the automotive industry.
Alcoholic beverages: Eat alcohol in alcoholic beverages.
Ethanol fuel cell: Ethanol can be used in DEFC direct fuel cells to generate electricity with waterborne and carbon dioxide products.
Rocket fuel: Use ethanol in rocket fuel to increase propulsion power.
Disinfectant: Use ethanol in medical centers to disinfect medical supplies, disinfect and disinfect disinfectants.
Anti-poison: Use ethanol to eliminate the effects of toxic substances such as methanol and ethylene glycolate.
Other uses: Solvent, antiperspirant and …
Physical and chemical properties:
Molecular formula: C2H6O
Molar mass: 46.07 g mol
Appearance colorless liquid Density: 0.789 g cm-3
Melting point: 114.3 C, 159 K, 174 F
Boiling point: 78.4 C, 352 K, 173 F
Solubility in water, miscible Acidity (pKa): 15.9
Viscosity: 1,200 cP (20 C)
Dipole moment: 1.69 D (gas)
Flashpoint: 13 C (55.4 F)
Ethanol is produced in synthetic and synthetic ways. The synthetic production method of this material is extracted from petroleum products and is used in the fermentation of food and sugar-bearing plants. Most of the ethanol produced in the world (about 93%) is from the fermentation method and only about 7% of the artificial method is produced. It is worth mentioning that of the total alcohol production of the world by fermentation, about 65% is obtained by fermentation from the by-products of the sugar industry, and 35% from the fermentation of other sugar products such as corn, wheat, dates, etc. Following is the ethanol production process.
1- Production of ethyl alcohol is synthesized by synthetic ethanol synthesis using a direct and indirect hydration of ethylene. Indirect hydriding process is more than direct hydration and more than 100 years old. In this method, firstly, hydrocarbon feed containing 35-95% ethylene is exposed to 95-98% sulfuric acid and produces mono and diethylene sulfate
CH3CH2OSO3H---CH2=CH2 + H2SO4 O2(CH2=CH2)+H2SO4 —- (CH3CH2O)SO4
The mixture is then hydrolyzed with water and a solution of 50 to 60 degrees of sulfuric acid:
CH3CH2O) 2SO3 + 2H2O-2CH3CH2OH + H2SO4 CH3CH2OSO3H + H2O-CH3CH2OH + H2SO4
The ethanol is then diluted with dilute sulfuric acid in a separation tower and the acid returns to the process after thickening. The direct hydration process was exploited industrially in 1947. In this process, ethylene-rich gas is mixed with water and converted to ethanol after passing through the catalyst. 2CH2 + H2O-C2H5OH There are also many other processes for the synthesis of ethanol that are not of industrial significance.
2- Fermentation of ethyl alcohol by using fermentation: Glycogenic materials are usually converted directly to ethanol by microorganisms, while starch and cellulose must first be hydrolyzed and converted to sugar, and then converted into fermentation Ethanol.
3. Alcohol production of sugar candy: This group is currently the most important source of alcohol production in Iran. Among these, molasses (sugar beet and cane sugar) are the most important source of cheap hydrocarbons. Molasses are produced in sugar-beet production plants of sugar beet and sugar cane, containing about 36% alcohol-converted sugar. (In the case of beet molasses, the amount of sugar is 51%). In this process, molasses are first diluted with water and then digested with yeast and converted into alcohol. The fermentation process and the production of alcohol from sugar are carried out according to the following.
C6H12O6-2C2H5OH + 2CO2